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Ch. 23 Student Press Law



1.       When was the first student newspaper published in the United States? Where? What was the name of the paper?





2.       Why must public schools conform to government laws?






3.       Free expression is guaranteed under the First Amendment in what five areas?





4.       What recourse does a person have if he or she thinks something published in the press is unlawful?





5.       Summarize each of the three major cases decided by the United States Supreme court regarding student expression: Tinker, Bethel, and Hazelwood.















6.       Which of the three cases is most directly connected with school newspapers? Which one is considered by legal experts to be the most important First Amendment case for students?





7.       In what has become a well known phrase, Supreme Court Justices said that students and teachers do not lose their rights of free expression “once they enter the schoolhouse door.” The bulleted list that follows this phrase explains how this is true. Summarize those points.






8.       Prior review means that school administrators will review school publications and give their consent to publish. What did the courts decide regarding prior review in Fijishima v. Chicago (Illinois) Board of Education, 1972?






9.       What was the decision made in Gambino v. Fairfax County (Virginia) School Board, 1977?







10.   What are three guidelines for student publications that include the central Tinker provision?









11.   The Hazelwood case limited First Amendment rights of students. List four ways the Supreme Court decision impacted student publications.








12.   Choose one post-Hazelwood court decision and summarize it.










13.   What specifications must an online publication meet to be governed by Hazelwood standards?




14.   What ways other than the federal court system can student First Amendment rights be protected?






15.   Define “libel.” (See your glossary also). What four conditions must exist to constitute libel?















16.   Name four ways student journalists can protect themselves from a potential libel claim?












17.   What types of expression fall under unprotected speech or expression?







18.   How is copyright indicated?






19.   What is the fair use law? How can students use copyrighted material under the fair use law?









20.   There are four types of invasion of privacy. Explain each one.









21.   What rights do students have to public records? Which school and community meeting should students consider as good opportunities to cover news events firsthand?











22.   How can the Student Press Law Center help student journalists?









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